Trusts

Trusts

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Law 463 (Trusts & Equity) considers foundational issues in the law of trusts such as the nature of a trust; formal requirements of trusts; constitution of trusts; secret trusts; trusts, powers and purposes; certainties; property-holding by unincorporated associations; charitable trusts and cy-près; resulting trusts; some aspects of trustees’ powers and duties; variation of trusts; the principles of constructive trusts; remedies, including some aspects of tracing; the intersection of trusts doctrine and the law of unjust enrichment. The course does not extend to tax treatment of trusts.

Assessment: 100% Open Book Examination.

Casebook: Oosterhoff on Trusts: Text, Commentary and Materials, 8th edition (2014)

Classes:  Monday 11:30am-1:00pm (Dunning 12) & Wednesday 1:30-3:00pm (Dunning 12).

 

TOPICS AND READINGS

 

September 6th:

Overview. No reading required.

 

September 11th:

TOPIC 1: INTRODUCTION AND THE TRUST AS AN INSTITUTION

Historical background: 1-8

Definitions: 18-24

Classification of Trusts: 24-31

The Fiduciary Principle: 138-144

Galambos v Perez, 2009 SCC 48

Alberta v Elder Advocates of Alberta Society, 2011 SCC 24

Lecture Notes (1) – The Fiduciary Principle

 

September 13th:

Trust and Agency: 75-80

Oskar v. Chee, 2012 ONSC 1545

Trust and Contract: 80-87

Trust and Debt: 87-96

Trust and Bailment: 96-99

Estate Trusts: 99-105

Trusts and Conditional Gifts: 105-114

Deemed Statutory Trusts: 114-122

Lecture Notes (2) – Alternative Characterizations

 

September 18th:

TOPIC 2: POWERS OF APPOINTMENT

Powers: 155-169

Certainty of Objects: 169-182

TOPIC 3: FORMALITIES OF EXPRESS AND SECRET TRUSTS

Formalities: 291-302

Secret Trusts: 870-888

Holvenstot v. Holvenstot Estate, 2012 BCSC 923

Lecture Notes (3) – Powers; Formalities of Express Trusts

 

September 20th:

TOPIC 4: CONSTITUTING THE TRUST; ‘THE THREE CERTAINTIES

‘The Three Certainties’
Introduction: 192-193

Certainty of Intention: 193-198

Certainty of Subject-Matter: 198-216

Certainty of Objects: 210-238

Dynamic Properties Company Ltd. v. Self, 2013 NSSC 71

Re Hardt, 2013 BCSC 276

Lecture Notes (4) – ‘The Three Certainties

 

September 25th:

Constitution: 245-276

Covenants And The Maxim ‘Equity Will Not Assist A Volunteer’: 276-291

Lecture Notes (5) – Constitution of Trusts

 

September 27th:

TOPIC 5: THE BENEFICIARY PRINCIPLE AND PURPOSE TRUSTS; GIFTS TO UNINCORPORATED ASSOCIATIONS

Trusts for Persons: 564-568

Gifts To Unincorporated Associations: 568-571

Polish Assn. of Toronto Ltd. v. Polish Alliance of Canada, 2017 ONCA 574 (Ont. C.A.)

Lecture Notes (6) – The Beneficiary Principle; Unincorporated Associations

 

October 2, 2017:

TOPIC 6: CHARITABLE TRUSTS

The Advantages of Charity: 386-393

Meaning of ‘Charity’: 393-404

Public Benefit: 404-413

The Heads of Charity: 413-466

Lecture Notes (7) – Charitable Trusts

 

October 4, 2017:

Cy-Pres: 477-517

Re Sprott Estate 2011 NSSC 327

Lecture Notes (8) Cy-Pres

 

October 11, 2017:

TOPIC 7: RESULTING TRUSTS; QUISTCLOSE TRUSTS

The Resulting Trust: 586-594

Failure of the Express Trust: 595-624

Gratuitous Transfers and the Presumption of Advancement: 658-678

Foley v. McIntyre, 2015 ONCA 382

Lecture Notes (9) Resulting Trusts (I)

 

No class on October 16

 

October 18, 2017:

Purchase Money Resulting Trusts: 635-644

Quistclose Trusts: 553-563

Lecture Notes (10) – Resulting Trusts II; Quistclose Trusts

 

October 23 2017:

TOPIC 8: TRUSTEESHIP AND THE ADMINISTRATION OF TRUSTS

Trustee Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. T.23 (Really. Please read the statute.)

Appointment: 910-922

Retirement: 922-927

Removal / Passing Over: 927-936

Gonder v. Gonder Estate, 2010 ONCA 172

Powers/Duties of the Trustee: 940-949, 963-971

Standard of Care: 146-154

Executor Insurance: ERAssure Insurance (for information only)

 

October 25, 2017:

Delegation:  949-954

Investment: 983-989

The Impartiality Requirement: 989-1012

Duties to Account and Inform: 124-138

Rights: 1013-1038

Termination: 329-346

Variation of Trust: 346-382

The Canada Trust Company v. Browne, 2012 ONCA 862

 

TOPIC 9: INTRODUCTION TO CONSTRUCTIVE TRUSTS GENERALLY AND UNJUST ENRICHMENT

Introduction and History: 719-736

Nature of the Constructive Trust: 736-740

Moore v. Sweet, 2017 ONCA 182

Constructive Trusts and the Evolving Jurisdiction in Unjust Enrichment: 740-763

Garland v. Consumers’ Gas Co., 2004 SCC 25

Alberta v Elder Advocates of Alberta Society, 2011 SCC 24

Granger v. Granger, 2017 ONCA 110

 

TOPIC 10: CONSTRUCTIVE TRUST AND EQUITABLE WRONGS

Breach of Confidence: 768-791

Breach of Fiduciary Duty: 791-841

 

TOPIC 11: TRUSTEE LIABILITY, CONSTRUCTIVE TRUSTS, AND REMEDIES FOR WRONGDOING

Liability: 1040-1046

Defences: 1085-1116

Exculpation: 1116-1119, 1120-1124

Personal Remedies: 1050-1075, 1075-1085

Third Parties: . 1131-1185

Tracing: 1187-1245

Easy Loan Corporation v Wiseman, 2017 ABCA 58 (Alta. C.A.)

 

 

David Freedman: Estates, Trusts & Guardianship Law David Freedman: Estates, Trusts & Guardianship Law David Freedman: Estates, Trusts & Guardianship Law David Freedman: Estates, Trusts & Guardianship Law David Freedman: Estates, Trusts & Guardianship Law