Overview of the course:

This course considers foundational issues in the law of trusts such as the nature of a trust; formal requirements of trusts; constitution of trusts; secret trusts; trusts, powers and purposes; certainties; property-holding by unincorporated associations; charitable trusts and cy-près; resulting trusts; some aspects of trustees’ powers and duties; variation of trusts; the principles of constructive trusts; remedies, including some aspects of tracing; the intersection of trusts doctrine and the law of unjust enrichment. The course does not extend to tax treatment of trusts.

Assessment: 100% Open-book  Final Examination.

Casebook: Oosterhoff on Trusts: Text, Commentary and Materials, 9th edition (2019)

Classes:   Wednesdays, 4:00 – 7:00 p.m. (room TBA)

 

READING LIST

(under development – subject to change) 

Page numbers refer to Oosterhoff on Trusts, 9th Edition

 

I.  INTRODUCTION AND THE TRUST AS AN INSTITUTION

Historical background: 3-13

Definitions: 17-22

Classification of Trusts:  22-28

The Fiduciary Principle: 128-134

Galambos v Perez, 2009 SCC 48

Alberta v Elder Advocates of Alberta Society, 2011 SCC  24

Trust and Agency: 73-77

Trust and Contract: 77-83

Trust and Debt: 83-89

Trust and Bailment: 91-93

Estate Trusts: 94-99

Trusts and Gifts: 103-107


II.  POWERS OF APPOINTMENT

Powers: 145-156


III.  FORMALITIES OF EXPRESS AND SECRET  TRUSTS

Formalities: 277-286

Secret Trusts: 830-848


IV.  ‘THE THREE CERTAINTIES’

Introduction: 175-178

Certainty of Intention: 178-185

Certainty of Subject-Matter: 185-202

Certainty of Objects: 158-169, 202-227

Constitution: 229-236, 238-266


V.  THE BENEFICIARY PRINCIPLE AND PURPOSE TRUSTS; GIFTS TO UNINCORPORATED ASSOCIATIONS

Trusts for Persons: 533-536

Angus v The Corporation of the Municipality of Port Hope, 2016 ONSC 4343 (Ont. S.C.J.)

Gifts To  Unincorporated Associations: 536-548

Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church of Canada St. Mary Cathedral v. Aga, 2021 SCC 22


VI.  CHARITABLE TRUSTS

The Advantages of Charity: 366-372

Meaning  of ‘Charity’:  372-383 Public Benefit: 383-392

The Heads of Charity: 393-440

Public Appeals: 530-532

Cy-Pres: 451-484


VII.  RESULTING TRUSTS; QUISTCLOSE  TRUSTS

The Resulting Trust:  553-561

Failure of the Express Trust:  562-589

Apparent Gifts: 589-666

Kent v. Kent, 2020 ONCA 390  (Ont. C.A.)

Quistclose Trusts: 521-528


VIII.  TRUSTEESHIP AND THE ADMINISTRATION OF  TRUSTS

Trustee Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. T.23 (Really. Please read the statute.)

The Nature of the Court’s Jurisdiction: Carroll v. Toronto-Dominion Bank, 2021 ONCA 38 (Ont. C.A.)

Appointment: 874-885

Retirement: 885-890

Removal / Passing Over: 890-900

Gonder v. Gonder Estate, 2010 ONCA 172

Powers/Duties of the Trustee: 901-943

Investment: 945-951

The Impartiality Requirement: 951-963

Duties to Account and Inform: 115-127

Rights: 975-999

Standard of Care: 136-143

Executor Insurance: ERAssure Insurance(for information  only)

Variation of Trust: 328-361


IX.  INTRODUCTION TO CONSTRUCTIVE TRUSTS GENERALLY AND UNJUST ENRICHMENT

Introduction and History: 674-700

Nature of the Constructive Trust:  700-704

Constructive Trusts and the Evolving Jurisdiction in Unjust Enrichment: 705-721

Garland v. Consumers’ Gas Co., 2004 SCC  25

Kerr v. Baranow, 2011 SCC 10

Moore v. Sweet, 2018 SCC 52


X.  CONSTRUCTIVE TRUST AND EQUITABLE WRONGS

Breach of Confidence: 729-781

Breach of Fiduciary Duty: 752-802


XI.  TRUSTEE LIABILITY, CONSTRUCTIVE TRUSTS, AND REMEDIES FOR WRONGDOING

Liability and Remedies: 1003-1048

Defences: 1048-1075

Exculpation:  1076-1087

Third Parties: 1097-1153

Tracing: 1155-1215