Overview of the course:

This course considers foundational issues in the law of trusts such as the nature of a trust; formal requirements of trusts; constitution of trusts; secret trusts; trusts, powers and purposes; certainties; property-holding by unincorporated associations; charitable trusts and cy-près; resulting trusts; some aspects of trustees’ powers and duties; variation of trusts; the principles of constructive trusts; remedies, including some aspects of tracing; the intersection of trusts doctrine and the law of unjust enrichment. The course does not extend to tax treatment of trusts.

Assessment: 100% Open-book  Final Examination.

Casebook: Oosterhoff on Trusts: Text, Commentary and Materials, 9th edition (2019)

Classes:   Wednesdays, 4:00 – 7:00 p.m. Law Building, Room 201.

 

READING LIST

(subject to change) 

Page numbers refer to Oosterhoff on Trusts, 9th Edition

September 8, 2021

I.  INTRODUCTION AND THE TRUST AS AN INSTITUTION

Historical background: 3-13

Definitions: 17-22

Classification of Trusts:  22-28

The Fiduciary Principle: 128-134

Galambos v Perez, 2009 SCC 48

Alberta v Elder Advocates of Alberta Society, 2011 SCC  24

Trust and Agency: 73-77

Trust and Contract: 77-83

Trust and Debt: 83-89

Trust and Bailment: 91-93

Estate Trusts: 94-99

Trusts and Gifts: 103-107

♦  Lecture Notes No. 1


September 15, 2021

II.  POWERS OF APPOINTMENT

Powers: 145-156


III.  FORMALITIES OF EXPRESS AND SECRET  TRUSTS

Formalities: 277-286

Secret Trusts: 830-848


IV.  ‘THE THREE CERTAINTIES’

Introduction: 175-178

Certainty of Intention: 178-185

Certainty of Subject-Matter: 185-202

♦  Lecture Notes No. 2


September 22, 2021

Certainty of Objects: 158-169, 202-227

Constitution: 229-236, 238-266

V.  THE BENEFICIARY PRINCIPLE AND PURPOSE TRUSTS; GIFTS TO UNINCORPORATED ASSOCIATIONS

Trusts for Persons: 533-536

Angus v The Corporation of the Municipality of Port Hope, 2016 ONSC 4343 (Ont. S.C.J.)

Gifts To  Unincorporated Associations: 536-548

Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church of Canada St. Mary Cathedral v. Aga, 2021 SCC 22

VI.  CHARITABLE TRUSTS

The Advantages of Charity: 366-372

Meaning  of ‘Charity’:  372-383 Public Benefit: 383-392

The Heads of Charity: 393-440

Lecture Notes (3) – Certainty of Objects; The Beneficiary Principle and Gifts to Unincorporated Associations; Charitable Trusts I


September 29, 2021

Public Appeals: 530-532

Cy-Pres: 451-484

VII.  RESULTING TRUSTS; QUISTCLOSE  TRUSTS

The Resulting Trust:  553-561

Failure of the Express Trust:  562-589

Apparent Gifts: 589-666

Kent v. Kent, 2020 ONCA 390  (Ont. C.A.)

Lecture Notes (4) – Cy-Pres; Resulting Trusts


October 6, 2021

Quistclose Trusts: 521-528

VIII.  TRUSTEESHIP AND THE ADMINISTRATION OF  TRUSTS

Trustee Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. T.23 (Really. Please read the statute.)

The Nature of the Court’s Jurisdiction: Carroll v. Toronto-Dominion Bank, 2021 ONCA 38 (Ont. C.A.)

Appointment: 874-885

Retirement: 885-890

Removal / Passing Over: 890-900

Gonder v. Gonder Estate, 2010 ONCA 172

Powers/Duties of the Trustee: 901-943

[Non-examinable reading for those that might have trouble sleeping: Freedman, The Court’s Rectification Power In Contracts, Trusts, And Wills]

Lecture Notes (5) – Quistclose Trusts; Administration of Trusts (I)


October 13, 2021

Investment: 945-951

The Impartiality Requirement: 951-963

Duties to Account and Inform: 115-127

Rights: 975-999

Standard of Care: 136-143

Executor Insurance: ERAssure Insurance(for information  only)

Variation of Trust: 328-361

Lecture Notes (6) – Administration of Trusts (II); Variation of Trusts


October 20, 2021

Discussion of Problem Questions re Topics I-VIII (to be distributed)


October 27, 2021

IX.  INTRODUCTION TO CONSTRUCTIVE TRUSTS GENERALLY AND UNJUST ENRICHMENT

Introduction and History: 674-700

Nature of the Constructive Trust:  700-704

Constructive Trusts and the Evolving Jurisdiction in Unjust Enrichment: 705-721

Garland v. Consumers’ Gas Co., 2004 SCC  25

Kerr v. Baranow, 2011 SCC 10

Moore v. Sweet, 2018 SCC 52


X.  CONSTRUCTIVE TRUST AND EQUITABLE WRONGS

Breach of Confidence: 729-781

Breach of Fiduciary Duty: 752-802


November 3, 2021

No class. Fall Term Reading Week.


November 10, 2021

XI.  TRUSTEE LIABILITY, CONSTRUCTIVE TRUSTS, AND REMEDIES FOR WRONGDOING

Liability and Remedies: 1003-1048

Defences: 1048-1075

Exculpation:  1076-1087

Third Parties: 1097-1153

Tracing: 1155-1215


November 17, 2021

TBA


November 24, 2021

Review.

I’ve put aside one class in case of illness or something else unforeseen. If at all possible, I would like to end classes November 24, 2021.