Overview of the course:

This course considers foundational issues in the law of trusts such as the nature of a trust; formal requirements of trusts; constitution of trusts; secret trusts; trusts, powers and purposes; certainties; property-holding by unincorporated associations; charitable trusts and cy-près; resulting trusts; some aspects of trustees’ powers and duties; variation of trusts; the principles of constructive trusts; remedies, including some aspects of tracing; the intersection of trusts doctrine and the law of unjust enrichment. The course does not extend to tax treatment of trusts.

Assessment: 100% Open-book  Final Examination.

Casebook: Oosterhoff on Trusts: Text, Commentary and Materials, 9th edition (2019)

Classes:   Tuesdays, 8:30 – 10:00 a.m. (Room 202) &  Thursdays, 8:30 – 10:00 a.m. (Room 202)


TOPICS, LECTURE SCHEDULE, & READING LIST

Page numbers refer to Oosterhoff on Trusts, 9th Edition

September 6, 2022

Overview. No reading.

[you may wish to read the following as background after class:

Historical background: 3-13

Definitions: 17-22

Classification of Trusts:  22-28]


September 8, 2022

I.  INTRODUCTION AND THE TRUST AS AN INSTITUTION

The Fiduciary Principle: 128-134

Galambos v Perez, 2009 SCC 48

Alberta v Elder Advocates of Alberta Society, 2011 SCC  24

Lecture Notes 1 – The Fiduciary Principle


September 13, 2022

Trust and Agency: 73-77

Trust and Contract: 77-83

Trust and Debt: 83-89

Trust and Bailment: 91-93

Lecture Notes 2 – Trust and Other Characterizations


Please note that the remainder of this page was revised on September 18, 2022.


September 20, 2022

Estate Trusts: 94-99

Trusts and Gifts: 103-107

II.  POWERS OF APPOINTMENT

Powers: 145-156

Lectures Notes 3 – Completion of Intro Materials; Powers


September 22, 2022

III.  FORMALITIES OF EXPRESS AND SECRET  TRUSTS

Formalities: 277-286

Secret Trusts: 830-848

IV.   ‘THE THREE CERTAINTIES’

Introduction: 175-178

Certainty of Intention: 178-185

Lectures Notes 4 – Formalities; Secret and Semi-Secret Trusts; Certainty of Intention


September 27, 2022

No class.


September 29, 2022

Certainty of Subject-Matter: 185-202

Certainty of Objects: 158-169, 202-227

Constitution: 229-236, 238-266

V.  THE BENEFICIARY PRINCIPLE AND PURPOSE TRUSTS; GIFTS TO UNINCORPORATED ASSOCIATIONS

Trusts for Persons: 533-536

Angus v The Corporation of the Municipality of Port Hope, 2016 ONSC 4343 (Ont. S.C.J.)

Lecture Notes 5 – The 3 Certainties (II); The Beneficiary Principle

Audio Recording


October 4, 2022

Gifts To  Unincorporated Associations: 536-548

Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church of Canada St. Mary Cathedral v. Aga, 2021 SCC 22

VI.  VARIATION OF TRUSTS

Variation of Trusts: 328-361

Lecture Notes 6 – Gifts to Unincorporated Associations; Variation of Trusts

Audio Recording


October 6, 2022

Audio Recording


October 11, 2022

VII.  CHARITABLE TRUSTS

The Advantages of Charity: 366-372

Meaning  of ‘Charity’:  372-383 Public Benefit: 383-392

The Heads of Charity: 393-440

Lecture Notes 7 – Charitable Trusts (I)

Audio


October 13, 2022

Public Appeals: 530-532

Cy-Pres: 451-484

Lecture Notes 8 – Charitable Trusts (II); Resulting Trusts (I)


October 18, 2022

VIII.  RESULTING TRUSTS; QUISTCLOSE  TRUSTS

The Resulting Trust:  553-561

Failure of the Express Trust:  562-589

Apparent Gifts: 589-666

Kent v. Kent, 2020 ONCA 390  (Ont. C.A.)

Audio


October 20, 2022

Quistclose Trusts: 521-528

Lecture Notes 9 – Quistclose Trusts


October 25, 2022

IX.  TRUSTEESHIP AND THE ADMINISTRATION OF  TRUSTS

Trustee Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. T.23 (Really. Please read the statute.)

The Nature of the Court’s Jurisdiction: Carroll v. Toronto-Dominion Bank, 2021 ONCA 38 (Ont. C.A.)

Appointment: 874-885

Retirement: 885-890

Removal / Passing Over: 890-900

Gonder v. Gonder Estate, 2010 ONCA 172

Powers/Duties of the Trustee: 901-943

Walters v. Walters, 2022 ONCA 38 (Ont. C.A.)

Lecture Notes 10 – Administration


October 27, 2022

No class.


November 1, 2022

X.  INTRODUCTION TO CONSTRUCTIVE TRUSTS GENERALLY AND UNJUST ENRICHMENT

Introduction and History: 674-700

Nature of the Constructive Trust:  700-704

Constructive Trusts and the Evolving Jurisdiction in Unjust Enrichment: 705-721

Garland v. Consumers’ Gas Co., 2004 SCC  25

Kerr v. Baranow, 2011 SCC 10

Moore v. Sweet, 2018 SCC 52

Lecture Notes 11 – Constructive Trusts (I)


November 8, 2022 & November 10, 2022

No classes – Reading Week


November 15, 2022

XI.  CONSTRUCTIVE TRUST AND EQUITABLE WRONGS

Breach of Confidence: 729-781

Breach of Fiduciary Duty: 752-802

Lecture Notes 12 – Constructive Trusts (II)

Audio


November 17, 2022

Audio


November 22 2022

XII.  TRUSTEE LIABILITY, CONSTRUCTIVE TRUSTS, AND REMEDIES FOR WRONGDOING

Liability and Remedies: 1003-1048

Defences: 1048-1075

Exculpation:  1076-1087

Lecture Notes 13 – Trustee Liability

Audio


November 24 2022

Third Parties: 1097-1153

Lecture Notes 14 – Third Party Liability; Tracing