Overview of the course:

This course considers foundational issues in the law of trusts such as the nature of a trust; formal requirements of trusts; constitution of trusts; secret trusts; trusts, powers and purposes; certainties; property-holding by unincorporated associations; charitable trusts and cy-près; resulting trusts; some aspects of trustees’ powers and duties; variation of trusts; the principles of constructive trusts; remedies, including some aspects of tracing; the intersection of trusts doctrine and the law of unjust enrichment. The course does not extend to tax treatment of trusts.

Assessment: 100% Open-book  Final Examination.

Casebook: Oosterhoff on Trusts: Text, Commentary and Materials, 9th edition (2019)

Classes:   Tuesdays, 8:30 – 10:00 a.m. (Room 202) &  Thursdays, 8:30 – 10:00 a.m. (Room 202)


TOPICS, LECTURE SCHEDULE, & READING LIST

Page numbers refer to Oosterhoff on Trusts, 9th Edition

September 6, 2022

Overview. No reading.

[you may wish to read the following as background after class:

Historical background: 3-13

Definitions: 17-22

Classification of Trusts:  22-28]


September 8, 2022

I.  INTRODUCTION AND THE TRUST AS AN INSTITUTION

The Fiduciary Principle: 128-134

Galambos v Perez, 2009 SCC 48

Alberta v Elder Advocates of Alberta Society, 2011 SCC  24

Lecture Notes 1 – The Fiduciary Principle


September 13, 2022

Trust and Agency: 73-77

Trust and Contract: 77-83

Trust and Debt: 83-89

Trust and Bailment: 91-93

Lecture Notes 2 – Trust and Other Characterizations


Please note that the remainder of this page was revised on September 18, 2022.


September 20, 2022

Estate Trusts: 94-99

Trusts and Gifts: 103-107

II.  POWERS OF APPOINTMENT

Powers: 145-156

Lectures Notes 3 – Completion of Intro Materials; Powers


September 22, 2022

III.  FORMALITIES OF EXPRESS AND SECRET  TRUSTS

Formalities: 277-286

Secret Trusts: 830-848

IV.   ‘THE THREE CERTAINTIES’

Introduction: 175-178

Certainty of Intention: 178-185

Lectures Notes 4 – Formalities; Secret and Semi-Secret Trusts; Certainty of Intention


September 27, 2022

No class.


September 29, 2022

Certainty of Subject-Matter: 185-202

Certainty of Objects: 158-169, 202-227

Constitution: 229-236, 238-266

V.  THE BENEFICIARY PRINCIPLE AND PURPOSE TRUSTS; GIFTS TO UNINCORPORATED ASSOCIATIONS

Trusts for Persons: 533-536

Angus v The Corporation of the Municipality of Port Hope, 2016 ONSC 4343 (Ont. S.C.J.)

Lecture Notes 5 – The 3 Certainties (II); The Beneficiary Principle

Audio Recording


October 4, 2022

Gifts To  Unincorporated Associations: 536-548

Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church of Canada St. Mary Cathedral v. Aga, 2021 SCC 22

VI.  VARIATION OF TRUSTS

Variation of Trusts: 328-361


October 6, 2022

VII.  CHARITABLE TRUSTS

The Advantages of Charity: 366-372

Meaning  of ‘Charity’:  372-383 Public Benefit: 383-392

The Heads of Charity: 393-440


October 11, 2022

Public Appeals: 530-532

Cy-Pres: 451-484

VIII.  RESULTING TRUSTS; QUISTCLOSE  TRUSTS

The Resulting Trust:  553-561

Failure of the Express Trust:  562-589

Apparent Gifts: 589-666

Kent v. Kent, 2020 ONCA 390  (Ont. C.A.)


October 13, 2022

Quistclose Trusts: 521-528


October 18, 2022

IX.  TRUSTEESHIP AND THE ADMINISTRATION OF  TRUSTS

Trustee Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. T.23 (Really. Please read the statute.)

The Nature of the Court’s Jurisdiction: Carroll v. Toronto-Dominion Bank, 2021 ONCA 38 (Ont. C.A.)

Appointment: 874-885

Retirement: 885-890

Removal / Passing Over: 890-900

Gonder v. Gonder Estate, 2010 ONCA 172

Powers/Duties of the Trustee: 901-943

Walters v. Walters, 2022 ONCA 38 (Ont. C.A.)


October 20, 2022

Catch up, if necessary & Problem Questions


October 25, 2022

X.  INTRODUCTION TO CONSTRUCTIVE TRUSTS GENERALLY AND UNJUST ENRICHMENT

Introduction and History: 674-700

Nature of the Constructive Trust:  700-704

Constructive Trusts and the Evolving Jurisdiction in Unjust Enrichment: 705-721

Garland v. Consumers’ Gas Co., 2004 SCC  25

Kerr v. Baranow, 2011 SCC 10

Moore v. Sweet, 2018 SCC 52


October 27, 2022

No class.


November 1, 2022

XI.  CONSTRUCTIVE TRUST AND EQUITABLE WRONGS

Breach of Confidence: 729-781

Breach of Fiduciary Duty: 752-802


November 3, 2022

No class.


November 8, 2022 & November 10, 2022

No classes – Reading Week


November 15, 2022

XII.  TRUSTEE LIABILITY, CONSTRUCTIVE TRUSTS, AND REMEDIES FOR WRONGDOING

Liability and Remedies: 1003-1048

Defences: 1048-1075

Exculpation:  1076-1087


November 17, 2022

Third Parties: 1097-1153


November 22 2022

Review and Case Studies / Past Exams

Note: The last three classes are set aside in case of illness or if we do not keep to the schedule. If we finish early, so much the better – more time to study.